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PostgreSQL - Npgsql.NpgsqlException: sorry, too many clients already

기본 설치된 PostgreSQL로 작업하다 보면,

닷넷에서 접근해보는 PostgreSQL DB
; https://www.sysnet.pe.kr/2/0/961

docker - PostgreSQL 컨테이너 실행
; https://www.sysnet.pe.kr/2/0/12179

이런 오류를 만날 수 있습니다.

System.Web.HttpUnhandledException (0x80004005): Exception of type 'System.Web.HttpUnhandledException' was thrown. ---> Npgsql.NpgsqlException:
sorry, too many clients already
Severity: FATAL
Code: 53300
at Npgsql.NpgsqlState.<ProcessBackendResponses_Ver_3>d__a.MoveNext() in C:\projects\Npgsql2\src\Npgsql\NpgsqlState.cs:line 686
at Npgsql.NpgsqlState.IterateThroughAllResponses(IEnumerable`1 ienum) in C:\projects\Npgsql2\src\Npgsql\NpgsqlState.cs:line 319
at Npgsql.NpgsqlState.ProcessBackendResponses(NpgsqlConnector context) in C:\projects\Npgsql2\src\Npgsql\NpgsqlState.cs:line 314
at Npgsql.NpgsqlConnectedState.Startup(NpgsqlConnector context) in C:\projects\Npgsql2\src\Npgsql\NpgsqlConnectedState.cs:line 52
at Npgsql.NpgsqlConnector.Open() in C:\projects\Npgsql2\src\Npgsql\NpgsqlConnector.cs:line 656
at Npgsql.NpgsqlConnectorPool.GetPooledConnector(NpgsqlConnection Connection) in C:\projects\Npgsql2\src\Npgsql\NpgsqlConnectorPool.cs:line 423
at Npgsql.NpgsqlConnectorPool.RequestPooledConnectorInternal(NpgsqlConnection Connection) in C:\projects\Npgsql2\src\Npgsql\NpgsqlConnectorPool.cs:line 226
at Npgsql.NpgsqlConnectorPool.RequestPooledConnector(NpgsqlConnection Connection) in C:\projects\Npgsql2\src\Npgsql\NpgsqlConnectorPool.cs:line 178
at Npgsql.NpgsqlConnectorPool.RequestConnector(NpgsqlConnection Connection) in C:\projects\Npgsql2\src\Npgsql\NpgsqlConnectorPool.cs:line 158
at Npgsql.NpgsqlConnection.Open() in C:\projects\Npgsql2\src\Npgsql\NpgsqlConnection.cs:line 557
at TestProj.postgreSQLTest.Page_Load(Object sender, EventArgs e) in C:\temp\TestProj\postgreSQLTest.aspx.cs:line 67
at System.Web.Util.CalliEventHandlerDelegateProxy.Callback(Object sender, EventArgs e)
at System.Web.UI.Control.OnLoad(EventArgs e)
at System.Web.UI.Control.LoadRecursive()
at System.Web.UI.Page.ProcessRequestMain(Boolean includeStagesBeforeAsyncPoint, Boolean includeStagesAfterAsyncPoint)
at System.Web.UI.Page.HandleError(Exception e)
at System.Web.UI.Page.ProcessRequestMain(Boolean includeStagesBeforeAsyncPoint, Boolean includeStagesAfterAsyncPoint)
at System.Web.UI.Page.ProcessRequest(Boolean includeStagesBeforeAsyncPoint, Boolean includeStagesAfterAsyncPoint)
at System.Web.UI.Page.ProcessRequest()
at System.Web.UI.Page.ProcessRequestWithNoAssert(HttpContext context)
at System.Web.UI.Page.ProcessRequest(HttpContext context)
at ASP.postgresqltest_aspx.ProcessRequest(HttpContext context) in c:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\Temporary ASP.NET Files\root\f6a2ca4e\18f058f4\App_Web_fnvonuy2.21.cs:line 0
at System.Web.HttpApplication.CallHandlerExecutionStep.System.Web.HttpApplication.IExecutionStep.Execute()

검색으로 답을 찾고, ^^

org.postgresql.util.PSQLException: FATAL: sorry, too many clients already
; https://stackoverflow.com/questions/2757549/org-postgresql-util-psqlexception-fatal-sorry-too-many-clients-already

정리해 보면, SQL 쿼리로 "SHOW config_file;" 명령을 실행해 conf 파일 경로를 구한 후,

/var/lib/postgresql/data/postgresql.conf

(혹은, 그냥 윈도우/리눅스에 상관없이 설치 폴더를 기준으로 /data/postgresql.conf를 찾으면 됩니다.)

해당 파일의 "max_connections" 옵션을 (기본값 100에서) 적절하게 늘려주면 됩니다.

// docker container의 경우 apt를 이용해 nano 등의 편집기를 설치 후,

root@413ae7aa9ad4:/# apt update
root@413ae7aa9ad4:/# apt install nano

root@413ae7aa9ad4:/# nano /var/lib/postgresql/data/postgresql.conf

root@413ae7aa9ad4:/# cat /var/lib/postgresql/data/postgresql.conf 
...[생략]...

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# CONNECTIONS AND AUTHENTICATION
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Connection Settings -

listen_addresses = '*'
                                        # comma-separated list of addresses;
                                        # defaults to 'localhost'; use '*' for all
                                        # (change requires restart)
#port = 5432                            # (change requires restart)
max_connections = 200                   # (change requires restart)
#superuser_reserved_connections = 3     # (change requires restart)
#unix_socket_directories = '/var/run/postgresql'        # comma-separated list of directories
                                        # (change requires restart)
#unix_socket_group = ''                 # (change requires restart)
#unix_socket_permissions = 0777         # begin with 0 to use octal notation
                                        # (change requires restart)
...[생략]...




참고로, 아래는 12.2 버전의 postgres 컨테이너에서 제공하는 conf 파일의 전문입니다.

root@413ae7aa9ad4:/# cat /var/lib/postgresql/data/postgresql.conf 
# -----------------------------
# PostgreSQL configuration file
# -----------------------------
#
# This file consists of lines of the form:
#
#   name = value
#
# (The "=" is optional.)  Whitespace may be used.  Comments are introduced with
# "#" anywhere on a line.  The complete list of parameter names and allowed
# values can be found in the PostgreSQL documentation.
#
# The commented-out settings shown in this file represent the default values.
# Re-commenting a setting is NOT sufficient to revert it to the default value;
# you need to reload the server.
#
# This file is read on server startup and when the server receives a SIGHUP
# signal.  If you edit the file on a running system, you have to SIGHUP the
# server for the changes to take effect, run "pg_ctl reload", or execute
# "SELECT pg_reload_conf()".  Some parameters, which are marked below,
# require a server shutdown and restart to take effect.
#
# Any parameter can also be given as a command-line option to the server, e.g.,
# "postgres -c log_connections=on".  Some parameters can be changed at run time
# with the "SET" SQL command.
#
# Memory units:  kB = kilobytes        Time units:  ms  = milliseconds
#                MB = megabytes                     s   = seconds
#                GB = gigabytes                     min = minutes
#                TB = terabytes                     h   = hours
#                                                   d   = days


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# FILE LOCATIONS
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# The default values of these variables are driven from the -D command-line
# option or PGDATA environment variable, represented here as ConfigDir.

#data_directory = 'ConfigDir'           # use data in another directory
                                        # (change requires restart)
#hba_file = 'ConfigDir/pg_hba.conf'     # host-based authentication file
                                        # (change requires restart)
#ident_file = 'ConfigDir/pg_ident.conf' # ident configuration file
                                        # (change requires restart)

# If external_pid_file is not explicitly set, no extra PID file is written.
#external_pid_file = ''                 # write an extra PID file
                                        # (change requires restart)


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# CONNECTIONS AND AUTHENTICATION
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Connection Settings -

listen_addresses = '*'
                                        # comma-separated list of addresses;
                                        # defaults to 'localhost'; use '*' for all
                                        # (change requires restart)
#port = 5432                            # (change requires restart)
max_connections = 100                   # (change requires restart)
#superuser_reserved_connections = 3     # (change requires restart)
#unix_socket_directories = '/var/run/postgresql'        # comma-separated list of directories
                                        # (change requires restart)
#unix_socket_group = ''                 # (change requires restart)
#unix_socket_permissions = 0777         # begin with 0 to use octal notation
                                        # (change requires restart)
#bonjour = off                          # advertise server via Bonjour
                                        # (change requires restart)
#bonjour_name = ''                      # defaults to the computer name
                                        # (change requires restart)

# - TCP Keepalives -
# see "man 7 tcp" for details

#tcp_keepalives_idle = 0                # TCP_KEEPIDLE, in seconds;
                                        # 0 selects the system default
#tcp_keepalives_interval = 0            # TCP_KEEPINTVL, in seconds;
                                        # 0 selects the system default
#tcp_keepalives_count = 0               # TCP_KEEPCNT;
                                        # 0 selects the system default

# - Authentication -

#authentication_timeout = 1min          # 1s-600s
#password_encryption = md5              # md5 or scram-sha-256
#db_user_namespace = off

# GSSAPI using Kerberos
#krb_server_keyfile = ''
#krb_caseins_users = off

# - SSL -

#ssl = off
#ssl_ca_file = ''
#ssl_cert_file = 'server.crt'
#ssl_crl_file = ''
#ssl_key_file = 'server.key'
#ssl_ciphers = 'HIGH:MEDIUM:+3DES:!aNULL' # allowed SSL ciphers
#ssl_prefer_server_ciphers = on
#ssl_ecdh_curve = 'prime256v1'
#ssl_dh_params_file = ''
#ssl_passphrase_command = ''
#ssl_passphrase_command_supports_reload = off


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# RESOURCE USAGE (except WAL)
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Memory -

shared_buffers = 128MB                  # min 128kB
                                        # (change requires restart)
#huge_pages = try                       # on, off, or try
                                        # (change requires restart)
#temp_buffers = 8MB                     # min 800kB
#max_prepared_transactions = 0          # zero disables the feature
                                        # (change requires restart)
# Caution: it is not advisable to set max_prepared_transactions nonzero unless
# you actively intend to use prepared transactions.
#work_mem = 4MB                         # min 64kB
#maintenance_work_mem = 64MB            # min 1MB
#autovacuum_work_mem = -1               # min 1MB, or -1 to use maintenance_work_mem
#max_stack_depth = 2MB                  # min 100kB
dynamic_shared_memory_type = posix      # the default is the first option
                                        # supported by the operating system:
                                        #   posix
                                        #   sysv
                                        #   windows
                                        #   mmap
                                        # use none to disable dynamic shared memory
                                        # (change requires restart)

# - Disk -

#temp_file_limit = -1                   # limits per-process temp file space
                                        # in kB, or -1 for no limit

# - Kernel Resources -

#max_files_per_process = 1000           # min 25
                                        # (change requires restart)

# - Cost-Based Vacuum Delay -

#vacuum_cost_delay = 0                  # 0-100 milliseconds
#vacuum_cost_page_hit = 1               # 0-10000 credits
#vacuum_cost_page_miss = 10             # 0-10000 credits
#vacuum_cost_page_dirty = 20            # 0-10000 credits
#vacuum_cost_limit = 200                # 1-10000 credits

# - Background Writer -

#bgwriter_delay = 200ms                 # 10-10000ms between rounds
#bgwriter_lru_maxpages = 100            # max buffers written/round, 0 disables
#bgwriter_lru_multiplier = 2.0          # 0-10.0 multiplier on buffers scanned/round
#bgwriter_flush_after = 512kB           # measured in pages, 0 disables

# - Asynchronous Behavior -

#effective_io_concurrency = 1           # 1-1000; 0 disables prefetching
#max_worker_processes = 8               # (change requires restart)
#max_parallel_maintenance_workers = 2   # taken from max_parallel_workers
#max_parallel_workers_per_gather = 2    # taken from max_parallel_workers
#parallel_leader_participation = on
#max_parallel_workers = 8               # maximum number of max_worker_processes that
                                        # can be used in parallel operations
#old_snapshot_threshold = -1            # 1min-60d; -1 disables; 0 is immediate
                                        # (change requires restart)
#backend_flush_after = 0                # measured in pages, 0 disables


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# WRITE-AHEAD LOG
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Settings -

#wal_level = replica                    # minimal, replica, or logical
                                        # (change requires restart)
#fsync = on                             # flush data to disk for crash safety
                                        # (turning this off can cause
                                        # unrecoverable data corruption)
#synchronous_commit = on                # synchronization level;
                                        # off, local, remote_write, remote_apply, or on
#wal_sync_method = fsync                # the default is the first option
                                        # supported by the operating system:
                                        #   open_datasync
                                        #   fdatasync (default on Linux)
                                        #   fsync
                                        #   fsync_writethrough
                                        #   open_sync
#full_page_writes = on                  # recover from partial page writes
#wal_compression = off                  # enable compression of full-page writes
#wal_log_hints = off                    # also do full page writes of non-critical updates
                                        # (change requires restart)
#wal_buffers = -1                       # min 32kB, -1 sets based on shared_buffers
                                        # (change requires restart)
#wal_writer_delay = 200ms               # 1-10000 milliseconds
#wal_writer_flush_after = 1MB           # measured in pages, 0 disables

#commit_delay = 0                       # range 0-100000, in microseconds
#commit_siblings = 5                    # range 1-1000

# - Checkpoints -

#checkpoint_timeout = 5min              # range 30s-1d
max_wal_size = 1GB
min_wal_size = 80MB
#checkpoint_completion_target = 0.5     # checkpoint target duration, 0.0 - 1.0
#checkpoint_flush_after = 256kB         # measured in pages, 0 disables
#checkpoint_warning = 30s               # 0 disables

# - Archiving -

#archive_mode = off             # enables archiving; off, on, or always
                                # (change requires restart)
#archive_command = ''           # command to use to archive a logfile segment
                                # placeholders: %p = path of file to archive
                                #               %f = file name only
                                # e.g. 'test ! -f /mnt/server/archivedir/%f && cp %p /mnt/server/archivedir/%f'
#archive_timeout = 0            # force a logfile segment switch after this
                                # number of seconds; 0 disables


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# REPLICATION
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Sending Servers -

# Set these on the master and on any standby that will send replication data.

#max_wal_senders = 10           # max number of walsender processes
                                # (change requires restart)
#wal_keep_segments = 0          # in logfile segments; 0 disables
#wal_sender_timeout = 60s       # in milliseconds; 0 disables

#max_replication_slots = 10     # max number of replication slots
                                # (change requires restart)
#track_commit_timestamp = off   # collect timestamp of transaction commit
                                # (change requires restart)

# - Master Server -

# These settings are ignored on a standby server.

#synchronous_standby_names = '' # standby servers that provide sync rep
                                # method to choose sync standbys, number of sync standbys,
                                # and comma-separated list of application_name
                                # from standby(s); '*' = all
#vacuum_defer_cleanup_age = 0   # number of xacts by which cleanup is delayed

# - Standby Servers -

# These settings are ignored on a master server.

#hot_standby = on                       # "off" disallows queries during recovery
                                        # (change requires restart)
#max_standby_archive_delay = 30s        # max delay before canceling queries
                                        # when reading WAL from archive;
                                        # -1 allows indefinite delay
#max_standby_streaming_delay = 30s      # max delay before canceling queries
                                        # when reading streaming WAL;
                                        # -1 allows indefinite delay
#wal_receiver_status_interval = 10s     # send replies at least this often
                                        # 0 disables
#hot_standby_feedback = off             # send info from standby to prevent
                                        # query conflicts
#wal_receiver_timeout = 60s             # time that receiver waits for
                                        # communication from master
                                        # in milliseconds; 0 disables
#wal_retrieve_retry_interval = 5s       # time to wait before retrying to
                                        # retrieve WAL after a failed attempt

# - Subscribers -

# These settings are ignored on a publisher.

#max_logical_replication_workers = 4    # taken from max_worker_processes
                                        # (change requires restart)
#max_sync_workers_per_subscription = 2  # taken from max_logical_replication_workers


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# QUERY TUNING
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Planner Method Configuration -

#enable_bitmapscan = on
#enable_hashagg = on
#enable_hashjoin = on
#enable_indexscan = on
#enable_indexonlyscan = on
#enable_material = on
#enable_mergejoin = on
#enable_nestloop = on
#enable_parallel_append = on
#enable_seqscan = on
#enable_sort = on
#enable_tidscan = on
#enable_partitionwise_join = off
#enable_partitionwise_aggregate = off
#enable_parallel_hash = on
#enable_partition_pruning = on

# - Planner Cost Constants -

#seq_page_cost = 1.0                    # measured on an arbitrary scale
#random_page_cost = 4.0                 # same scale as above
#cpu_tuple_cost = 0.01                  # same scale as above
#cpu_index_tuple_cost = 0.005           # same scale as above
#cpu_operator_cost = 0.0025             # same scale as above
#parallel_tuple_cost = 0.1              # same scale as above
#parallel_setup_cost = 1000.0   # same scale as above

#jit_above_cost = 100000                # perform JIT compilation if available
                                        # and query more expensive than this;
                                        # -1 disables
#jit_inline_above_cost = 500000         # inline small functions if query is
                                        # more expensive than this; -1 disables
#jit_optimize_above_cost = 500000       # use expensive JIT optimizations if
                                        # query is more expensive than this;
                                        # -1 disables

#min_parallel_table_scan_size = 8MB
#min_parallel_index_scan_size = 512kB
#effective_cache_size = 4GB

# - Genetic Query Optimizer -

#geqo = on
#geqo_threshold = 12
#geqo_effort = 5                        # range 1-10
#geqo_pool_size = 0                     # selects default based on effort
#geqo_generations = 0                   # selects default based on effort
#geqo_selection_bias = 2.0              # range 1.5-2.0
#geqo_seed = 0.0                        # range 0.0-1.0

# - Other Planner Options -

#default_statistics_target = 100        # range 1-10000
#constraint_exclusion = partition       # on, off, or partition
#cursor_tuple_fraction = 0.1            # range 0.0-1.0
#from_collapse_limit = 8
#join_collapse_limit = 8                # 1 disables collapsing of explicit
                                        # JOIN clauses
#force_parallel_mode = off
#jit = off                              # allow JIT compilation


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# REPORTING AND LOGGING
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Where to Log -

#log_destination = 'stderr'             # Valid values are combinations of
                                        # stderr, csvlog, syslog, and eventlog,
                                        # depending on platform.  csvlog
                                        # requires logging_collector to be on.

# This is used when logging to stderr:
#logging_collector = off                # Enable capturing of stderr and csvlog
                                        # into log files. Required to be on for
                                        # csvlogs.
                                        # (change requires restart)

# These are only used if logging_collector is on:
#log_directory = 'log'                  # directory where log files are written,
                                        # can be absolute or relative to PGDATA
#log_filename = 'postgresql-%Y-%m-%d_%H%M%S.log'        # log file name pattern,
                                        # can include strftime() escapes
#log_file_mode = 0600                   # creation mode for log files,
                                        # begin with 0 to use octal notation
#log_truncate_on_rotation = off         # If on, an existing log file with the
                                        # same name as the new log file will be
                                        # truncated rather than appended to.
                                        # But such truncation only occurs on
                                        # time-driven rotation, not on restarts
                                        # or size-driven rotation.  Default is
                                        # off, meaning append to existing files
                                        # in all cases.
#log_rotation_age = 1d                  # Automatic rotation of logfiles will
                                        # happen after that time.  0 disables.
#log_rotation_size = 10MB               # Automatic rotation of logfiles will
                                        # happen after that much log output.
                                        # 0 disables.

# These are relevant when logging to syslog:
#syslog_facility = 'LOCAL0'
#syslog_ident = 'postgres'
#syslog_sequence_numbers = on
#syslog_split_messages = on

# This is only relevant when logging to eventlog (win32):
# (change requires restart)
#event_source = 'PostgreSQL'

# - When to Log -

#log_min_messages = warning             # values in order of decreasing detail:
                                        #   debug5
                                        #   debug4
                                        #   debug3
                                        #   debug2
                                        #   debug1
                                        #   info
                                        #   notice
                                        #   warning
                                        #   error
                                        #   log
                                        #   fatal
                                        #   panic

#log_min_error_statement = error        # values in order of decreasing detail:
                                        #   debug5
                                        #   debug4
                                        #   debug3
                                        #   debug2
                                        #   debug1
                                        #   info
                                        #   notice
                                        #   warning
                                        #   error
                                        #   log
                                        #   fatal
                                        #   panic (effectively off)

#log_min_duration_statement = -1        # -1 is disabled, 0 logs all statements
                                        # and their durations, > 0 logs only
                                        # statements running at least this number
                                        # of milliseconds


# - What to Log -

#debug_print_parse = off
#debug_print_rewritten = off
#debug_print_plan = off
#debug_pretty_print = on
#log_checkpoints = off
#log_connections = off
#log_disconnections = off
#log_duration = off
#log_error_verbosity = default          # terse, default, or verbose messages
#log_hostname = off
#log_line_prefix = '%m [%p] '           # special values:
                                        #   %a = application name
                                        #   %u = user name
                                        #   %d = database name
                                        #   %r = remote host and port
                                        #   %h = remote host
                                        #   %p = process ID
                                        #   %t = timestamp without milliseconds
                                        #   %m = timestamp with milliseconds
                                        #   %n = timestamp with milliseconds (as a Unix epoch)
                                        #   %i = command tag
                                        #   %e = SQL state
                                        #   %c = session ID
                                        #   %l = session line number
                                        #   %s = session start timestamp
                                        #   %v = virtual transaction ID
                                        #   %x = transaction ID (0 if none)
                                        #   %q = stop here in non-session
                                        #        processes
                                        #   %% = '%'
                                        # e.g. '<%u%%%d> '
#log_lock_waits = off                   # log lock waits >= deadlock_timeout
#log_statement = 'none'                 # none, ddl, mod, all
#log_replication_commands = off
#log_temp_files = -1                    # log temporary files equal or larger
                                        # than the specified size in kilobytes;
                                        # -1 disables, 0 logs all temp files
log_timezone = 'UTC'

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# PROCESS TITLE
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#cluster_name = ''                      # added to process titles if nonempty
                                        # (change requires restart)
#update_process_title = on


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# STATISTICS
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Query and Index Statistics Collector -

#track_activities = on
#track_counts = on
#track_io_timing = off
#track_functions = none                 # none, pl, all
#track_activity_query_size = 1024       # (change requires restart)
#stats_temp_directory = 'pg_stat_tmp'


# - Monitoring -

#log_parser_stats = off
#log_planner_stats = off
#log_executor_stats = off
#log_statement_stats = off


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# AUTOVACUUM
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#autovacuum = on                        # Enable autovacuum subprocess?  'on'
                                        # requires track_counts to also be on.
#log_autovacuum_min_duration = -1       # -1 disables, 0 logs all actions and
                                        # their durations, > 0 logs only
                                        # actions running at least this number
                                        # of milliseconds.
#autovacuum_max_workers = 3             # max number of autovacuum subprocesses
                                        # (change requires restart)
#autovacuum_naptime = 1min              # time between autovacuum runs
#autovacuum_vacuum_threshold = 50       # min number of row updates before
                                        # vacuum
#autovacuum_analyze_threshold = 50      # min number of row updates before
                                        # analyze
#autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor = 0.2   # fraction of table size before vacuum
#autovacuum_analyze_scale_factor = 0.1  # fraction of table size before analyze
#autovacuum_freeze_max_age = 200000000  # maximum XID age before forced vacuum
                                        # (change requires restart)
#autovacuum_multixact_freeze_max_age = 400000000        # maximum multixact age
                                        # before forced vacuum
                                        # (change requires restart)
#autovacuum_vacuum_cost_delay = 20ms    # default vacuum cost delay for
                                        # autovacuum, in milliseconds;
                                        # -1 means use vacuum_cost_delay
#autovacuum_vacuum_cost_limit = -1      # default vacuum cost limit for
                                        # autovacuum, -1 means use
                                        # vacuum_cost_limit


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# CLIENT CONNECTION DEFAULTS
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Statement Behavior -

#client_min_messages = notice           # values in order of decreasing detail:
                                        #   debug5
                                        #   debug4
                                        #   debug3
                                        #   debug2
                                        #   debug1
                                        #   log
                                        #   notice
                                        #   warning
                                        #   error
#search_path = '"$user", public'        # schema names
#row_security = on
#default_tablespace = ''                # a tablespace name, '' uses the default
#temp_tablespaces = ''                  # a list of tablespace names, '' uses
                                        # only default tablespace
#check_function_bodies = on
#default_transaction_isolation = 'read committed'
#default_transaction_read_only = off
#default_transaction_deferrable = off
#session_replication_role = 'origin'
#statement_timeout = 0                  # in milliseconds, 0 is disabled
#lock_timeout = 0                       # in milliseconds, 0 is disabled
#idle_in_transaction_session_timeout = 0        # in milliseconds, 0 is disabled
#vacuum_freeze_min_age = 50000000
#vacuum_freeze_table_age = 150000000
#vacuum_multixact_freeze_min_age = 5000000
#vacuum_multixact_freeze_table_age = 150000000
#vacuum_cleanup_index_scale_factor = 0.1        # fraction of total number of tuples
                                                # before index cleanup, 0 always performs
                                                # index cleanup
#bytea_output = 'hex'                   # hex, escape
#xmlbinary = 'base64'
#xmloption = 'content'
#gin_fuzzy_search_limit = 0
#gin_pending_list_limit = 4MB

# - Locale and Formatting -

datestyle = 'iso, mdy'
#intervalstyle = 'postgres'
timezone = 'UTC'
#timezone_abbreviations = 'Default'     # Select the set of available time zone
                                        # abbreviations.  Currently, there are
                                        #   Default
                                        #   Australia (historical usage)
                                        #   India
                                        # You can create your own file in
                                        # share/timezonesets/.
#extra_float_digits = 0                 # min -15, max 3
#client_encoding = sql_ascii            # actually, defaults to database
                                        # encoding

# These settings are initialized by initdb, but they can be changed.
lc_messages = 'en_US.utf8'                      # locale for system error message
                                        # strings
lc_monetary = 'en_US.utf8'                      # locale for monetary formatting
lc_numeric = 'en_US.utf8'                       # locale for number formatting
lc_time = 'en_US.utf8'                          # locale for time formatting

# default configuration for text search
default_text_search_config = 'pg_catalog.english'

# - Shared Library Preloading -

#shared_preload_libraries = ''  # (change requires restart)
#local_preload_libraries = ''
#session_preload_libraries = ''
#jit_provider = 'llvmjit'               # JIT library to use

# - Other Defaults -

#dynamic_library_path = '$libdir'


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# LOCK MANAGEMENT
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#deadlock_timeout = 1s
#max_locks_per_transaction = 64         # min 10
                                        # (change requires restart)
#max_pred_locks_per_transaction = 64    # min 10
                                        # (change requires restart)
#max_pred_locks_per_relation = -2       # negative values mean
                                        # (max_pred_locks_per_transaction
                                        #  / -max_pred_locks_per_relation) - 1
#max_pred_locks_per_page = 2            # min 0


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# VERSION AND PLATFORM COMPATIBILITY
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Previous PostgreSQL Versions -

#array_nulls = on
#backslash_quote = safe_encoding        # on, off, or safe_encoding
#default_with_oids = off
#escape_string_warning = on
#lo_compat_privileges = off
#operator_precedence_warning = off
#quote_all_identifiers = off
#standard_conforming_strings = on
#synchronize_seqscans = on

# - Other Platforms and Clients -

#transform_null_equals = off


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# ERROR HANDLING
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#exit_on_error = off                    # terminate session on any error?
#restart_after_crash = on               # reinitialize after backend crash?
#data_sync_retry = off                  # retry or panic on failure to fsync data?


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# CONFIG FILE INCLUDES
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# These options allow settings to be loaded from files other than the
# default postgresql.conf.

#include_dir = 'conf.d'                 # include files ending in '.conf' from
                                        # directory 'conf.d'
#include_if_exists = 'exists.conf'      # include file only if it exists
#include = 'special.conf'               # include file


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# CUSTOMIZED OPTIONS
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# Add settings for extensions here




[이 글에 대해서 여러분들과 의견을 공유하고 싶습니다. 틀리거나 미흡한 부분 또는 의문 사항이 있으시면 언제든 댓글 남겨주십시오.]





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[최종 수정일: 3/16/2020 ]

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이 저작물은 크리에이티브 커먼즈 코리아 저작자표시-비영리-변경금지 2.0 대한민국 라이센스에 따라 이용하실 수 있습니다.
by SeongTae Jeong, mailto:techsharer@outlook.com

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