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uwsgi 설치 시 fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory

uwsgi도 python의 모듈로 설치되는데요, 예를 들어 python 3.11을 적용한 웹 애플리케이션을 만들어도 기존 환경의 uwsgi를 실행하면,

$ ~/.local/bin/uwsgi --py-autoreload=3 --http-socket :18091 --chdir /testprj/django --wsgi-file ./testprj/wsgi.py
*** Starting uWSGI 2.0.20 (64bit) on [Sat Nov 26 13:58:37 2022] ***
compiled with version: 9.4.0 on 10 May 2022 06:47:13
os: Linux-5.15.74.2-microsoft-standard-WSL2 #1 SMP Sat Nov 2 19:50:29 UTC 2022
nodename: testusr10
machine: x86_64
clock source: unix
detected number of CPU cores: 16
current working directory: /testprj/django
detected binary path: /home/testusr/.local/bin/uwsgi
!!! no internal routing support, rebuild with pcre support !!!
chdir() to /testprj/django
your processes number limit is 126951
your memory page size is 4096 bytes
detected max file descriptor number: 1024
lock engine: pthread robust mutexes
thunder lock: disabled (you can enable it with --thunder-lock)
uwsgi socket 0 bound to TCP address :18091 fd 3
Python version: 3.8.10 (default, Jun 22 2022, 20:18:18)  [GCC 9.4.0]
Python main interpreter initialized at 0x564cccc076e0
python threads support enabled
your server socket listen backlog is limited to 100 connections
your mercy for graceful operations on workers is 60 seconds
mapped 145808 bytes (142 KB) for 1 cores
*** Operational MODE: single process ***
WSGI app 0 (mountpoint='') ready in 0 seconds on interpreter 0x564cccc076e0 pid: 9810 (default app)
*** uWSGI is running in multiple interpreter mode ***
spawned uWSGI master process (pid: 9810)
spawned uWSGI worker 1 (pid: 9812, cores: 1)
Python auto-reloader enabled

웹 애플리케이션과 상관없이 uwsgi를 설치한 python 환경으로 실행됩니다. 따라서, 다음과 같이 명시적으로 해당 파이썬의 버전으로 uwsgi 모듈을 설치해야 합니다.

$ python3.11 -m pip install uwsgi
Defaulting to user installation because normal site-packages is not writeable
Collecting uwsgi
  Using cached uwsgi-2.0.21.tar.gz (808 kB)
  Preparing metadata (setup.py) ... done
Building wheels for collected packages: uwsgi
  Building wheel for uwsgi (setup.py) ... done
  Created wheel for uwsgi: filename=uWSGI-2.0.21-cp311-cp311-linux_x86_64.whl size=554642 sha256=22a639e9ace98d52ba5442af5a7b8e2a43eca2c3270d5a929e41cc63c374d211
  Stored in directory: /home/testusr/.cache/pip/wheels/ee/d7/0c/3abf1fe02439b5d37adf23207499340f89c5120bde5fc474f6
Successfully built uwsgi
Installing collected packages: uwsgi
Successfully installed uwsgi-2.0.21

이후 다시 실행하면 정상적으로 3.11 버전의 파이썬 환경이 적용되는 것을 확인할 수 있습니다.

$ /home/testusr/.local/bin/uwsgi --py-autoreload=3 --http-socket :18091 --chdir /testprj/django --wsgi-file ./testprj/wsgi.py
*** Starting uWSGI 2.0.21 (64bit) on [Sat Nov 26 14:13:50 2022] ***
compiled with version: 9.4.0 on 26 November 2022 05:11:23
...[생략]...
Python version: 3.11.0 (main, Oct 24 2022, 19:55:51) [GCC 9.4.0]
Python main interpreter initialized at 0x7f66d4e8c838
...[생략]...




참고로, uwsgi 설치 시 다음과 같은 오류가 발생한다면?

$ python3.11 -m pip install uwsgi
Defaulting to user installation because normal site-packages is not writeable
Collecting uwsgi
  Using cached uwsgi-2.0.21.tar.gz (808 kB)
  Preparing metadata (setup.py) ... done
Building wheels for collected packages: uwsgi
  Building wheel for uwsgi (setup.py) ... error
  error: subprocess-exited-with-error

  × python setup.py bdist_wheel did not run successfully.
  │ exit code: 1
  ╰─> [157 lines of output]
      /usr/lib/python3.11/distutils/dist.py:274: UserWarning: Unknown distribution option: 'descriptions'
        warnings.warn(msg)
      running bdist_wheel
      running build
      running build_py
      creating build
      creating build/lib
      copying uwsgidecorators.py -> build/lib
      installing to build/bdist.linux-x86_64/wheel
      running install
      using profile: buildconf/default.ini
      detected include path: ['/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/9/include', '/usr/local/include', '/usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu', '/usr/include']
      Patching "bin_name" to properly install_scripts dir
      detected CPU cores: 16
      configured CFLAGS: -O2 -I. -Wall -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -Wextra -Wno-unused-parameter -Wno-missing-field-initializers -DUWSGI_HAS_IFADDRS -DUWSGI_ZLIB -DUWSGI_LOCK_USE_MUTEX -DUWSGI_EVENT_USE_EPOLL ...[생략]...(transformation_template);ULEP(stats_pusher_socket);"
      *** uWSGI compiling server core ***
      [thread 1][x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc -pthread] core/master.o
      ...[생략]...
      [thread 6][x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc -pthread] core/config_py.o
      *** uWSGI compiling embedded plugins ***
      [thread 12][x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc -pthread] plugins/python/pyutils.o
      ...[생략]...
      [thread 1][x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc -pthread] plugins/python/uwsgi_pymodule.o
      In file included from plugins/python/pyutils.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      [thread 4][x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc -pthread] plugins/python/profiler.o
      In file included from plugins/python/python_plugin.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/pyloader.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/wsgi_handlers.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/wsgi_headers.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/wsgi_subhandler.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/web3_subhandler.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/gil.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/pump_subhandler.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/uwsgi_pymodule.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/profiler.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      [end of output]

  note: This error originates from a subprocess, and is likely not a problem with pip.
  ERROR: Failed building wheel for uwsgi
  Running setup.py clean for uwsgi
Failed to build uwsgi
Installing collected packages: uwsgi
  Running setup.py install for uwsgi ... error
  error: subprocess-exited-with-error

  × Running setup.py install for uwsgi did not run successfully.
  │ exit code: 1
  ╰─> [182 lines of output]
      /usr/lib/python3.11/distutils/dist.py:274: UserWarning: Unknown distribution option: 'descriptions'
        warnings.warn(msg)
      running install
      using profile: buildconf/default.ini
      detected include path: ['/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/9/include', '/usr/local/include', '/usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu', '/usr/include']
      Patching "bin_name" to properly install_scripts dir
      detected CPU cores: 16
      configured CFLAGS: -O2 -I. -Wall -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -Wextra -Wno-unused-parameter ...[생략]... ULEP(transformation_template);ULEP(stats_pusher_socket);"
      *** uWSGI compiling server core ***
      core/utils.o is up to date
      ...[생략]...
      core/xmlconf.o is up to date
      [thread 2][x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc -pthread] core/dot_h.o
      [thread 3][x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc -pthread] core/config_py.o
      *** uWSGI compiling embedded plugins ***
      [thread 1][x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc -pthread] plugins/python/wsgi_headers.o
      ...[생략]...
      [thread 3][x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc -pthread] plugins/gevent/hooks.o
      In file included from plugins/python/pyloader.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/pyutils.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/python_plugin.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/wsgi_headers.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/wsgi_handlers.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/gil.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/uwsgi_pymodule.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/wsgi_subhandler.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/symimporter.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/pump_subhandler.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/raw.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/web3_subhandler.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/python/tracebacker.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      In file included from plugins/python/profiler.c:1:
      plugins/python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/gevent/gevent.h:1,
                       from plugins/gevent/hooks.c:1:
      plugins/gevent/../python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      In file included from plugins/gevent/gevent.h:1,
                       from plugins/gevent/gevent.c:1:
      plugins/gevent/../python/uwsgi_python.h:4:10: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
          4 | #include <Python.h>
            |          ^~~~~~~~~~
      compilation terminated.
      [end of output]

  note: This error originates from a subprocess, and is likely not a problem with pip.
error: legacy-install-failure

× Encountered error while trying to install package.
╰─> uwsgi

note: This is an issue with the package mentioned above, not pip.
hint: See above for output from the failure.

아래의 글에서처럼,

fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
; https://stackoverflow.com/questions/21530577/fatal-error-python-h-no-such-file-or-directory

python-dev가 없기 때문입니다. 따라서, 다음과 같은 식으로 설치해 주시면 됩니다.

$ sudo apt-get install python3.11-dev  # for python3.11 installs




[이 글에 대해서 여러분들과 의견을 공유하고 싶습니다. 틀리거나 미흡한 부분 또는 의문 사항이 있으시면 언제든 댓글 남겨주십시오.]







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[최종 수정일: 11/30/2022]

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by SeongTae Jeong, mailto:techsharer at outlook.com

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